The marriage between Hamideh Khanum, the daughter of a leading aristocratic Azerbaijani family, and Mirza Jalil Mamadqulizadeh, founder and editor of the renowned satirical journal Molla Nasreddin, was a union of like-minded spirits. Both wanted to educate their community in the first quarter of the 20th century, during a period of great turmoil in their country.

Agriculture in Qajar Iran

Agriculture was the mainstay of Iran’s economy in the nineteenth century, yet little is known about it. Historians have rarely taken that important reality into account when writing on the economic or social history of that period, and until now there have been no comprehensive studies of Iranian agriculture.

Astrakhan: Anno 1770, Its History, Geography, Population, Trade, Flora, Fauna and Fisheries

In 1770, Astrakhan, on the left bank of the Volga River close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea, was Russia’s most important southern port through which all its trade with Iran and the Orient was conducted. Astrakhan had been a Tatar city until 1556 (when Ivan the Terrible conquered it), a fact reflected in the composition of its population in 1770: Tatars, Russians, Armenians, and Iranians.